first of all, you are in principle entitled to the issuance of new residence papers. Unfortunately, I do not know whether you have been recognized as a refugee or have subsidiary protection. If you are still in the asylum procedure, you would have a residence permit until your procedure at the BAMF (Federal Office for Migration and Refugees) is completed.
Since the Immigration & Registration Office told you that you should apply for toleration every 4 weeks, you are probably not (anymore) in the asylum procedure. Or you have received a negative decision from the BAMF at some point. Against a negative decision there is the possibility to file a complaint before the competent administrative court. However, the deadlines are very short.
Since you officially gave your fingerprints in Bulgaria, you are a so-called „Dublin case“. This means that your asylum procedure must be carried out in the country within the EU that you first entered (your fingerprints, which are now in the EURODAC file, serve as proof): and in your case, unfortunately, that was Bulgaria. The BAMF then checks whether you will be deported to Bulgaria. And that seems to have been affirmed in your case.
Notification to the BAMF and Immigration & Registration Office
But do not worry! First, you have to inform the BAMF and the Immigration & Registration Office here in Hamburg that you are in the hospital and are being treated for your mental condition. You can make an affidavit stating everything that happened to you in Bulgaria. Or you can submit certificates and expert opinions from your doctors.
At the beginning of April 2017, the Administrative Court of Hanover ruled that deportation to Bulgaria is prohibited because of inhumane and existentially threatening treatment there (AZ 15B2468/17). This ban on deportation is incontestable and unlimited in time. Currently, no members of particularly vulnerable groups (traumatized, mentally ill, etc.) are deported to Bulgaria. I would recommend you submit certificates from your doctors to the BAMF and the Immigration & Registration Office and to get a good lawyer in asylum law.
Good luck and above all get well soon!
This article was also published in German.